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阿德萊德代寫assignment The Theory

    The Theory—How Has the reduction in Uncertainty Driven
    change in Strategy?
    阿德萊德代寫assignment
    historicAlly no firm chArgEd its customErs V, the maximum that any of their custom-
    ers would be willing to pay for their product. With few exceptions (such as airlines
    practicing yield manage ment), firms charged all customers the same price, and the
    profit-maximizing price was usually somewhere around one-half the maximum that
    Figure 4. consumers’ Willingness to Pay for a Product at *P Will Be Affected Differently by
    Uncertainty
    阿德萊德代寫assignment
    NEW cONSUMEr BEHAVIOr DETErMINES cOrPOrATE STrATEgY 25
    would be paid by anyone. (The proof of this simply involves taking a first derivative,
    as we all remember from a first economics course.)
    阿德萊德代寫assignment
    So the firm set its profit-maximizing price and rolled out its mass-market fat spot
    offerings. The Industrial revolution produced a market as we experienced for over a
    century; huge firms offer ing mass-market goods and services with minimal variation.
    Huge scale reduced unit costs, and low cost reduced prices, which in turn increased
    scale. consumers had more cars, more clothing, and more food than at any time in
    human history. restrictions were not always as draconian as Henry Ford’s famous
    diktat, “the customer can have the Model T in any color as long as it’s black,” but
    abundance of products and services did not imply a wide selection or consumers’
    freedom of choice. Still, few consumers complained, since abundance without choice
    was a better option than scarcity without choice!
    The scale-leads-to-scale factor was not the only driver reinforcing the power of
    mass-market fat spots. Offerings were centered in fat spots and through familiarity
    and repeated purchase customers developed certainty about these offerings. goods
    and services competed principally through segmentation of the advertising message
    directing the same product to different groups of consumers, rather than through
    segmentation of the product design.11 Moreover, if companies had tried to develop
    and promote sweet spot offerings, they would have failed; the uncertainty discount
    that their potential new customers would have imposed on their new niche offerings
    would have been lethal to their launch. The world of abundance, limited choice, and
    the power of mass-market offerings pushed through Madison Avenue promotion was
    formed.
    This is illustrated in Figure 5. A new product has been introduced at the asterisk
    (*) shown in the middle of its product attribute space. consumers are equally spread
    along this product attribute space, and consumers’ willingness to pay once again is
    based on the distance between their location and the product’s location at *. Without
    an uncertainty discount, consumers close to the * would have high willingness to
    pay and consumers far from the * would have lower willingness to pay, as depicted
    by the inverted V centered about the *. Unfortunately, for new product launches, the
    uncertainty discount was always large. The maximum reached by the uncertainty
    discount associated with introducing a new product was U, which was large for the
    customers for whom the product would have been ideal; the overall collapse in custom-
    ers’ willingness to pay can be seen from the inverted flattened curve under the higher
    inverted-V-shaped one. The complexity penalty associated with trying to add to the
    product line was M, which was also large. conse quently, there is no profit-maximizing
    price. The profit-maximizing price P that the firm would have charged without the
    complexity penalty is actually lower than the complexity penalty M; indeed, there is
    no potential new customer whose willingness to pay is greater than the incremental
    cost the firm incurs by introducing this new product. In brief, it would have cost the
    firm far more to add new products than the firm could have earned by selling them.
    consumers’ lack of information, and the resulting uncertainty discount and reduction
    in willingness to pay, reduced innovation, new product introduction, consumer choice,
    and the profitability of innovative firms.

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