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代寫 French Parad:cardiovascular disease prevention

    ?ONPS2186 Science Project
    The French Paradox: the effects of polyphenolic compounds on cardiovascular disease prevention
    ?Contents
    Objective and research questions…………………………………………pg. 3
    Introduction………………………………………………………………………...pg. 4
    Red wine and its beneficial effects………………………………………..pg. 5
    Various wine beverages and their antioxidant effects……………pg. 6
    Red wine: most abundant of polyphenolic compounds………..pg. 7-10
    Examples of polyphenolic compounds………………………………….pg. 11
    Resveratrol…………………………………………………………………………….pg. 12-15
    Procyanidins………………………………………………………………………….pg. 16-19
    Anthocyanins………………………………………………………………………..pg. 20-25
    Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….pg. 26
    References……………………………………………………………………………..pg. 27-32
    ?The objective and research questions
    Objective:
    ØTo investigate whether polyphenolic compounds in wine consumption improves cardiovascular health by reducing certain risk factors of cardiovascular disease

    Research questions:
    1.Which wine type has the abundant of these polyphenolic compounds?
    2.What beneficial effects does that specific wine type provide?
    3.What effect does resveratrol have on platelet aggregation?
    4.What effect does procyanidins have on LDL oxidation?
    5.What effect does anthocyanins have on cholesterol profile?
    ?Introduction
    The “French paradox” term:
    o The observation of French people suffers less CHD death rates considering high saturated fat and cholesterol diet
    (Ferrieres, 2004)

    This is unusual because risk factors for heart disease such as cigarette smoking and saturated intake are significant among the French (Charters, 2002)

    Alcohol consumption such as wine in France is high, suggesting that the drinking habits protects the French from CHD  (Lorgeril et al, 2002)

    Polyphenols in red wine may be responsible for the “French paradox” phenomenon through subsequent and laboratory studies findings (Charters, 2002)



    ?Red wine and its beneficial effects
    Red wine and its cardioprotective role is the reasons for French paradox’s existence. Cardioprotective effects of red wine consumption includes the following:
    o HDL cholesterol increased
    o Platelet aggregation inhibition/reduction
    o Reduced clotting factor
    o Reduced vasoconstrictatory thromboxane
    o Increased vasodilatory prostacyclin
    o LDL oxidation inhibited
    o scavenging of free radicals
    (Dudley et al, 2008)

    Polyphenols absorption is better in wine than fruits and vegetables because ethanol enhances polyphenols breakdown into smaller products, thus readily absorbed (Dubick, 2002)

    ?Various wine beverages and their antioxidant effects
    Table 1: Comparison antioxidant effects in various wine beverages associated with LDL (Wollin & Jones, 2001).
    ?Red wine: most abundant of polyphenolic compounds
    Red wine contains polyphenolic compounds and obtained during fermentation, and extraction are mainly in the seeds and skin (Cordova & Sumpio, 2009).

    The polyphenolic content in red wines are higher than white wines (red=0.2% and white=0.01%)(Lippi, Franchini, & Guidi, 2010), but depending on its amount and type that vary from one wine to another, the concentration can be greatly as 2000mg/l (Puddey, Zilkens, & Croft, 2004)

    Red wine contains major components such as tannins, polymeric phenols, flavonoids and also other phenolic acids in high quantities (Puddey, Zilkens, & Croft, 2004). The alcoholic beverage comparison done by Coreinstein et al (2000) between red wine, white wine and beer shows that red wine has the most total polyphenols
    ?Red wine: most abundant of polyphenolic compounds
    Figure 1: The comparison of epicatechin and quercetin content in red wine, white wine and beer (Gorinstein et al, 2000)
    ?Red wine: most abundant of polyphenolic compounds
    Figure 2: The comparison of P-coumaric acid and gallic acid content in red wine, white wine and beer (Gorinstein et al, 2000).
    ?Red wine: most abundant of polyphenolic compounds
    Figure 3: The comparison of Feulic acid and procyanidins content in red wine, white wine, and beer (Gorinstein et al, 2000).
    ?Examples of polyphenolic compounds
    Phenolic acids (Erdman et al, 2007)
    Ø Hydroxybenoic
    Ø Hydroxycinnamic

    Tannins (Erdman et al, 2007)
    v Derived and Hydrolysable tannins

    Stilbenoids (Tunstall-Pedoe, 2008)
    q Resveratrol*
    q Pterostibene

    Flavonols (Tunstall-Pedoe, 2008)
    o Quercetin
    o Polymers: Catechin* and Epicatechin*
    Anthocyanins* (Tunstall-Pedoe, 2008)
    ü Cyanidin

    Proanthocyanidins (Waterhouse, 2002)
    § Procyanidins*
    §Prodelphindins

    ?Resveratrol
    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin polyphenol that are found in red wines and grape skins naturally, however the content varies from wine to wine and the quantities are low (Das, Mukherjee, & Ray, 2010).

    Resveratrol is a natural stilbene non-flavonoid which is one of the biologically active polyphenols (Saleem, Ahmad, & Dore, 2006).

    The popularity of resveratrol has become due to the connection of the French paradox as many believed it is the red wines secret compound (Lekli, Ray, & Das, 2010).

    Recent study: resveratrol studies in animal supplementation shows several cardioprotective mechanisms such as protection against cardiac dysfunction including anti aging effects induces by low dose of resveratrol (Yoo, Saliba, & Prenzler, 2010).



    ?Resveratrol chemical structure
    Figure 4: Chemical structure of Resveratrol with numbering scheme (Han, Bastianetto, & Quirion, 2006).
    ?Resveratrol effect on platelet aggregation
    Shown to lower platelet aggregation (factor to atherosclerosis) (Saleem, Ahmad, & Dore, 2006).
    Few ways where resveratrol acts on platelets:
    oResveratrol increases NF-K-B activity (indirect oxidative stress biomarker) in human endothelial cells which provides anti-platelet effect (Opie & Lecour, 2007)
    oResveratrol inhibits ADP, collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (Olas & Wachowicz, 2005). For example, 50.3% collagen-induced palatelet aggregation was reduced by resveratrol (Fremont, 2000)
    oResveratrol inhibits Ca2+ influx (important step for platelet aggregation) thus blocks the thrombin-induce platelet aggregation (Dobrydneva, Williams, & Blackmore, 1999)
    oIn thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, pre-incubating thrombin with resveratrol previous to the platelet suspension addition (Olas & Wachowicz, 2005).
    o

    ?Resveratrol effect on platelet aggregation
    Table 2: Resveratrol effect on platelet aggregation in healthy males (n=6), X±SD (Wang et al, 2002)
    ?Procyanidins
    Procyanidins are made of structured chains of catechins and epicatechins, which are the chains of flavan-3-ols (Canali, Ambra, & Virgili, 2005)
    These molecule structures have antioxidant properties (e.g. Inhibits arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis) (landrault et al, 2001)

    Procyanidins in red wine are identified as the principle vasoactive polyphenols. This could explain the increase longevity in France and Sardinia population association with the traditional methods of producing wines which their wines has high procyanidin concentrations (Corder et al, 2006).
    ?Procyanidin and polymer structures
    Figure 5: Procyanidin structure and flavan-3-ol structures
    (Canali, Ambra, & Virgili, 2005).
    ?Procyanidins effect on LDL oxidation
    Procyanidins in red wines inhibits LDL oxidations which prevents diseases like atherosclerosis (Armengol, 2004)

    Procyanidins inhibits LDL oxidations through possible few ways:
    o procyanidins binding with proteins through large variation activities of procyanidins (Teissedre et al, 1996)
    oCatechol units is part of the structure and is responsible for antioxidant capacity against LDL oxidation (Canali, Ambra, & Virgili, 2005)
    o Reactive species in the arterial wall intestinal fluids and plasma are trapped (Shrikhande, 2000)
    oMaintaining concentration of LDL α tocopherol recycling it back to the radical form,  α tocopheroxyl (Lovrenco, Gago, Barbosa, Freitas, & Laranjiha, 2008)
    ?Procyanidins
    Table 3: LDL oxidation inhibition by wine compounds (Teissedre, Frankel, Waterhouse, Peleg, & German, 1996)
    ?Anthocyanins
    oThey are water soluble secondary metabolites which brings colours of tissue of plants (e.g. blue, purple, and red) (Prior, 2004).
    oCrushing, pressing and fermentation of skins of grapes extracts free anthocyanins, hence the colour of red wine (Alen-Ruiz, Perez-Gregorio, Martinez-Carbollo, Garcia-Falcon, & Simal-Gandara, 2008).
    oAnthocyanin content vary in varieties of red wine between 1500 and 3000mg/kg (e.g. merlot, pinot noir and cabernet sauvignon), but it can be high as 9000mg/kg in other varieties (e.g. Vincent, Lamanto and Colobel) (Hui & Nip, 2006).
    oWidely recognised as highly beneficial due to its antioxidant activity, suggesting heart disease in France are low contributed by anthocyanins (Davies & Winefield, 2009) and therefore, protects from cardiovascular disease development (Hui & Nip, 2006).
    o
    ?Anthocyanins
    Figure 6: Common structures of anthocyanin.  Generally the 3rd C-ring position is where sugar moieties are on (Prior, 2004).
    ?Anthocyanins
    Figure 7: Cyanidin and Cyanidin 3-o-β-D-glucoside chemical structures (Tsuda, Horio, & Osawa, 2000).
    ?Anthocyanins effect on cholesterol profile
    Supplements of anthocyanin in humans improves:
    o Concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol
    o Cellular cholesterol efflux enhancement to serum
    Inhibition of CETP,  a protein responsible for cholesteryl ester removal from HDL and swaps for a triglyceride (risk factor for CVD), may be the reasons for these benefits.
    (Qin et al, 2009)

    Anthocyanin also prevents proinflammatory signalling of CD40 (development and initiation potent activator of Atherosclerosis) by preventing translocation of TRAF-2 to lipid rafts through regulating the distribution of cholesterol.
    (Xia et al, 2007)
    ?Anthocyanins
    Figure 8: Anthocyanin regulating cholesterol distribution by preventing inflammatory signalling of CD40-induced(Xia et al, 2007)
    ?Anthocyanins
    Table 4: Baseline results (Blood lipid profile and lipid metabolic enzymes) and after 12 weeks of placebo or anthocyanins consumption (Qin et al. 2009)
    ?Conclusion
    Polyphenols have positive properties that what contributes to CHD prevention. Among the alcoholic beverages, red wine has the abundant polyphenols content compared to others, hence red wine is known to have a range of cardioprotective properties.

    Among the polyphenols, resveratrol, procyanins, and anthocyanins in red wines have their properties that reduces risk factors of CHD:
    oResveratrol is shown to reduce platelet aggregations
    oProcyadins is shown to reduce oxidations of LDL
    oAnthocyanins is shown to improve the cholesterol profile (such as decrease LDL and increase HDL)

    These factors are the reasons for the phenomenon existence of the so-called “The French paradox” as the French population have longervity and less mortality CHD rate despite their unusual diet, and it is due to their drinkng habits, particularly red wine. Therefore, polyphenolic compounds in wine consumption improves cardiovascular health by reducing certain risk factors of cardiovascular disease.
    ?References
    Alen-Ruiz, F., Perez-Gregorio, M. R., Martinez-Carballo, E., Garcia-Falcon, M. S., & Simal-Gandara, J. (2008). Influence of polyphenols on colour and antioxidant value in plant foods. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 7(8), 3171-3176.

    Armengol, M. P. (2004). Adipose Cell Metabolism Modulation by Red Wine Procyanidins. Tarragona: Universitat Rovira I Virgili.

    Aviram, M., & Fuhram, B. (2003). Wine flavonoids, LDL cholesterol oxidation and atherosclerosis. In M. Sandler & R. Pinder, Wine A Scientific Exploration (pp. 140-159). New York: Taylor & Francis Inc.

    Canali, R., Ambra, R., & Virgili, F. (2005). Antioxidant and Gene Regulatory Properties of Procyanidins. In G. Rimbach, J. Fuchs, & L. Packer, Nutrigenomics, 379-396. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group.

    Charters, S. (2006). Wine and society the social and cultural context of a drink. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Ltd.

    Corder, R., Mullen, W., Khan, N. Q., Marks, S. C., Wood, E. G., Carrier, M. J., Crozier, A. (2006). Oenology: Red wine procyanidins and vascular health. Nature, 444, 566. doi: 10.1038/444566a

    Cordova, A. C., & Sumpio, B. E. (2009). Polyphenols are  medicine: Is it time to prescribe red wine for our patients?. International Journal of Angiology, 18(3), 111-118.

    ?References
    Das, D. K., Mukherjee, S., & Ray, D. (2010). Resveratrol and red wine, healthy heart longevity. Heart Fail Rev, 15, 467-477. doi: 10.1007/s10741-010-9163-9

    Dobrydneva, Y., Williams, R. L., & Blackmore, P. F. (1999). trans-Resveratrol inhibits calcium influx in thrombin-stimulated human platelets. British Journal of Pharmacology, 128, 149-157.

    Dubick, M. A. (2002). Wine Polyphenols and Protection from Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease: Drink To Your Health?. In M. S. Meskin, W. R. Bidlack, A. J. Davies, S. T. Omaya, Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Dubick, M. A., & Omaye, S. T. (2007). Grape wine and Tea Polyphenols in the Modulation of Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease. In R. E. C. Wildman (2nd Ed.), Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional foods. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Dudley, J. I., Lekli, I., Mukherjee, S., Das, M., Bertelli, A. A. A., & Das, D. K. (2008). Does White Wine Qualify for French Paradox? Comparison of the Cardioprotective Effects of Red and White Wines and Their Constituents: Resveratrol, Tyrosol, and Hydroxytryrosol. Journal of Agricultural and Food  Chemistry, 56, 9362-9373. doi: 10.1021/jf801791d

    Erdman, J. W. Jr., Balentine, D., Arab, L., Beecher, G., Dwyer, J. T., Folts, J., Harnly, J., Hollman, P., Keen, C. L., Mazza, G., Messina, M., Scalbert, A., Vita, J., Williamson, G., Burrowes, J. (2007).  Flavonoids and Heart Health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop. The Journal of Nutrition, 137, 718s-737s.

    ?References
     Ferrieres, J. (2004). The French paradox: lessons for other countries. Heart, 90, 107-111.Fremont, L. (2000). Mini review biological effects of resveratrol. Life Sciences, 66(8), 663-673.

    Gorinstein, S., Capsi, A., Zemser, M., & Trakhtenberg, S. (2000). Comparative contents of some phenolics in beer, red and white wines. Nutrition Research, 20(1), 131-139.

    Gould, K., Davies, K. M., & Winefield, C. (2009). Anthocyanins Biosynthesis, Functions, and Applications. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

    Han, Y., Bastianetto, S., Quirion, R. (2006). Neuroprotective Effects of Resveratrol. In B. B. Aggarwal & S. Shishodia, Resveratrol in Health and Disease (pp. 619-630). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Hui, Y. H., & Nip, W. (2006). Food Biochemistry & Food Processing. Iowa: Blackwell publishing.

    Landraut, L., Poucheret, P., Ravel, P., Gasc, F., Cros, G., & Teissedre, P. (2001). Antioxidant Capacities and Phenolics Levels of French Wines from Different Varieties and Vintages. J. Agric. Food Chem, 49, 3341-3348.

    Lekli, I., Ray, D., & Das, D. K. (2010). Longevity nutrients resveratrol, wines and grapes. Genes Nutrition, 5, 55-60. doi: 10.1007/s12263-009-0145-2

    Lippi, G., Franchini, M., & Guidi, G. C. (2010). Red wine and cardiovascular health: the “French Paradox” revisited. International Journal of Wine Research, 2, 1-7.

    ?References
    Lorgeril, M., Salen, P., Paillard, F., Laporte, F., Boucher, F., & Leiris, J. (2002). Mediterranean diet and the French paradox: Two distinct biogeographic concepts for one consolidated scientific theory on the role of nutrition in coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular Research, 54, 503-515.

    Lourenco, C. F., Gago, B., Barbosa, R. M., Freitas, V., & Laranjinha, J. (2008). LDL Isolated from Plasma-Loaded Red Wine Procyanidins Resist Lipid Oxidation and Tocopherol Depletion. J. Agric. Food Chem, 56, 3798-3804.

    Olas, B., & Wachowicz, B. (2005). Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant with effects on blood platelet functions. Platelets, 16(5), 251-260. doi: 10.1080/0953710040002059

    Opie, L. H., & Lecour, S. (2007). The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signalling molecules. European Heart Journal, 28, 1683-1693. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehm149

    Prior, R. L. (2004). Absorption and Metabolism of Anthocyanins: Potential Health Effects. In M. S. Meskin, W. R. Bidlack, A. J. Davies, D. S. Lewis, & R. K. Randolph, Phytochemicals Mechanisms of Action. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.

    Puddey, I. B., Zilkens, R. R., & Croft, K. D. (2004). Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Effects of Alcoholic Beverages: Relevance to Cardiovascular Disease. In R. R. Watson, & V. R. Preedy, Nutrition and Alcohol Linking Nutrient Interactions and Dietary Intake (pp. 19-33). Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.


    ?References
    Qin, Y., Xia, M., Ma, J., Hao, Y., Liu, J., Mou, H., Cao, L., & Ling, W. (2009). Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90, 485-492.

    Saleem, S., Ahmad, A. S., & Dore, S. (2006). Protective Effects of Resveratrol in Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disease and Gene Regulatory Action. In B.B. Aggarwal, & S. Shishodia, Resveratrol in Health and Disease (pp. 499-517). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Shrikhande, A. J. (2000). Wine by-products with health benefits. Food Research International, 33, 469-474.

    Takeoka, G., & Dao, L. (2007). Anthocyanins. In W. J. Hurst (2nd Ed.),  Methods of Analysis for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Teissedre, P. L., Frankel, E. N., Waterhouse, A. L., Peleg, H., & German, J. B. (1996). Inhibition of In Vitro Human LDL Oxidation by Phenolic Antioxidants from Grapes and Wines. Journal of Science Food Agriculture, 70, 55-61.

    Tsuda, T., Horio, F., & Osawa, T. (2000). The role of anthocyanins as an antioxidant under oxidative stress in rats. BioFactors, 13, 133-139.

    Tunstall-Pedoe, H. (2008). The French paradox. Dialogues in Cardiovascular Medicine, 13, 3, 159-179.

    ?References
    Wang, Z., Huang, Y., Zou, J., Cao, K., Xu, Y., & Wu, J. M. (2002). Effects of red wine and wine polyphenol resveratrol on platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 9, 77-79.

    Waterhouse, A. L. (2002). The Phenolic Wine Antioxidants. In E. Cadenas, & L. Packer (2nd  Ed.), Handbook of Antioxidants. New York: Marcel Dekker,  Inc.

    Wollen, S. D., & Jones, P. J. H. (2001). Alcohol, Red Wine and Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of Nutrition, 131, 1401-1404.

    Xia, M., Ling, W., Zhu, H., Wang, Q., Ma, J., Hou, M., Tang, Z., Li, L., & Ye, Q. (2007). Anthocyanin Prevents CD40-Activated Proinflammatroy Signaling in Endothelial Cells by Regulating Cholesterol Distribution. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 27, 519-524. doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000254672.04573.2d

    Yoo, Y. J., Saliba, A. J., Prenzler, P. D. (2010). Should Red Wine Be Considered a Functional Food?. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9, 530-551. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00125.x

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