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代寫urban environment urbanization

    Increased urbanization occurs at the cost of the environment
     
    Introduction
    Urbanization, an important driver of climate change and pollution, alters both biotic and abiotic ecosystem properties within, surrounding, and even at great distances from urban areas (Nancy et al. 2008, 264-272). Urbanization refers to the historical process during which the agriculture-oriented traditional village transforms gradually into the modern city primarily dominated by industry and service sectors. The transformation involves the change of occupation of people, the industrial structure, the land and geographic space. Urbanization is a process during which population assembles, and the structure of industry changes, moreover, urban land expands, and consumption patterns change. Furthermore, it will exert a considerable influence on the environment. What’s worse, the increase of population results in the lack of city’s resources, traffic congestion and other problems. The problem of air pollution, water pollution, solid and noise pollution becomes more serious due to the industrialization and the change of consumption patterns. Large-scale expansion of urban land makes the problems like soil erosion and agricultural ecological system contraction, and shortage of land resources become severe; at the same time, it may result in the change of the atmosphere and water environment of the city and its surrounding areas.
     
    The major influence on urban water environment
    With the rapid development of urbanization, the problems of eco-environment and resources have drawn wide attention (& Lu, 2010). The urban construction land expands. The numbers of building and impermeable surface area in the city are increasing constantly. With the accelerating urbanization in recent years, the impermeable surface area of many cities at home and abroad occupies more than 60% of the total proportion, and it may increase in the future. This abates the surface’s ability to store water and abates infiltration capacity. In addition, that transforms more precipitation into the surface runoff.
    People in the city have diluted and decomposed waste in the rivers, lakes and coastal waters for a long time, because the flow of water helps to break down waste and makes it become harmless. However, the increasing urban population and the increasing quantities of garbage have been far beyond the local rivers and lakes of self-purification ability, thus serious water pollution and marine pollution appear, among which the excess of heavy metal and the water eutrophication are the most serious problems. In addition, the cholera bacteria and hepatitis salmonella pathogens invasion of water are also threats to human being. Wastewater’s emission of the tannery, paper mills and metal plating makes heavy metal exceed bid. In addition, the sewage often carries a large number of pathogens, so it is also a threat for the urban people who rely on the river for drinking and irrigation. Profound structural modification of streams and rivers, coupled with changes in impervious surfaces, affect hydro-ecology in, and downstream from, cities and suburbs (Paul and Meyer 2001).
     
    The major influence on the urban atmospheric environment
    The urbanization results in the urban heat island effect and urban warming phenomenon. The urban heat island effect refers to the phenomenon that the temperature in the urban is obviously higher than that in the suburbs (Ren & Zong, 2010). There are three factors, namely the difference between city and country in underlying surface thermodynamic properties of artificial surface area, more carbon dioxide in the air produced by the fuel and the heat source of the artificial factor.
    The urbanization causes air pollution. Air pollution is caused by the extensive use of energy in the city, and carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in the atmosphere. In addition, the dust and suspended particulate matter produced by construction and road traffic have some effects on the deterioration of the urban atmospheric environment. There are large amounts of pollution emissions in the urban areas because of the concentration of industrial production. Compared with the suburban counties, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen content of carbide in urban is much higher than that in suburban area, two times or so as in suburban area.
    In addition, the urbanization has a significant effect on the existence of fog, the precipitation in cities, and suburban atmospheric circulation. What’s worse, it has a more serious effect on the urban regional climate. It brings a series of climate disasters, such as dust storms, urban smog, and photochemical pollution and so on.
     
    With the expansion of the urban land and the increase of urban construction, the land resources become inevitably limited. Unreasonable use of land has a negative effect on the ecology, environment and the development and utilization of natural resources, such as deteriorating soil erosion and land desertification, causing the geological disasters, like landslides, collapses, at the same time, it causes biodiversity decline, soil, water, air pollution, accelerates water resources, forest resource consumption, reduces farmland area, grassland degradation and so on. Beyond climate, land use – and its manifestation as land-cover change and pollution loading – is the major factor altering the structure, function, and dynamics of Earth’s terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urbanization, in particular, fundamentally alters both biotic and abiotic ecosystem properties within, surrounding, and even at great distances from urban areas (Grimmet. et al. 2008).
     
    History and experience prove that urbanization is the inevitable trend (Shang Juan & Du Shan, 2012). Rapid industrial development and urbanization transfer more and more land away from agricultural production (Xiaobo. et al, 2000). While the relation between urbanization and the environment is not necessarily antagonistic. A large number of facts also show that accelerating the urbanization does not necessarily lead to the deterioration of urban ecological environment. For example, urbanization promotes economic development, and it brings more environmental protection investment, increases human's ability to purify the air and alleviates the pressure of the ecological environment. The urbanization in western developed countries is fast, at the same time, the quality of the urban air there is also good. What’s the most important issue is how to better grasp the positive role of the urbanization.
     
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, the problem about the environment and development is the most important one in modern society. Human rationally choose the sustainable development, this is a significant historic turning point, and an important milestone with which human shift traditional development and open up modern civilization. The purpose of urbanization is to improve human material civilization and spiritual civilization, and regards sustainable development as its ultimate goal of human society. Being the basis of human survival and life, the purpose of the ecological environment’s development is also to realize the sustainable development of human society. So, there is no fundamental conflict of interest between them, just the contradiction between short-term interests and long-term interests, modern people's interests and the interests of future generations. That human choose the sustainable development shows both have same development purpose, that is to say they both promote the development of human civilization, and realize the sustainable development of the globe.
     
    References:
    Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, et al. (2008). Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319: 756–60.
    Paul MJ and Meyer JL. (2001). Streams in the urban landscape. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32: 333–65.
    Nancy B Grimm1, David Foster, Peter Groffman, et al. (2008). The changing landscape: ecosystem responses to urbanization and pollution across climatic and societal gradients. Front Ecol Environ, 6(5): 264–272.
    Xiaobo Zhang, Tim D. Mount and Richard N. Boisvert. (2000). Industrialization, Urbanization and Land Use in China. EPTD Discussion Paper No.58, Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institude, Washington D.C. USA.

    , . (2010). The Study on Coordinated Development between Urbanization and Eco-Environment--Take Shandong Province for Example. . 10(11): 1-4.

    Ren, F., Zong, L. (2010). In rural labor transfer the new change and countermeasures. Agricultural modernization research. (11), 21–26
    Shang Juan and Du Shan (2012). The Problems in the Course of China's Urbanization. . 10(9): 173-171.
     

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