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一份幫忙代寫過的assignment digital divide

    Analysis of The Digital Divide in The Information Age
    1 Introduction
     
      The 1990s is usually regarded as the new watershed for the development of human society, therefore many scholars agree that since then human beings have entered the knowledge economy era which is also called the information age by some people. The popularization of personal computers and network have not only changed the production mode of human beings, but also have greatly changed people's life style. But, just as same as the new technology which may bring a new set of political, economic, and cultural problems, the highly development and widely application of digital technology may also bring welfare as well as new inequality and social differentiation to human beings. In recent years, digital divide has gradually appeared in the international society and domestic society. Therefore, although the digital divide problem has not lasted for a long time, it has had a profound impact on contemporary international politics and international relations , and it also puts forward a new era topic for us. [1]
     
     
    2 Concepts of The Digital Divide
     
    In 1990, the famous futurist A.Toffler had further put forward the concept of electronic gap in the book Power Shift, book ,and he had described the digital divide as the gap of information and electronic technology.According to Hoffman’s textual research (2001) [2] , the concept of digital divide was firstly proposed by Lloyd Morrisett ,the former president of Markle foundation, that the digital divide was a gap between information haves and information have - nots . But the so-called gap at that time was mainly aiming at the popularization and application of Apple computers in the 1980s, focusing on the differences in personal computer ownership rate among different social groups (Arquette, 2001) [3]. However, there were some scholars believing that the term was firstly put forward by the former vice President Gore in 1996 in the report of the construction of the national information highway (Conhaim, 2000) .[4]
     
       However the scholars debate about who has proposed the concept , the author considers that the meaning of "digital" in the concept of digital divide refers to that all of the modern technology tools which contains digital technology can be regarded as the source of the so-called digital divide problem. In a broad sense, the source mainly includes fixed telephone, mobile phone, internet, personal computers and the internet host, etc. and in a narrow sense, it mainly includes the internet and personal computers. It is by possessing these modern digital communication and information tools that produces the gap between the haves and have-nots. Therefore, the digital divide refers to the information difference appearing in the process of global informatization due to the different level of possessing information technology among different countries, regions, class and people. In other words, the digital divide means the difference between the people who posses new communication technology and the people who don’t have. As James L. Koch, the professor in the Santa Clara University in United States, says in the book society divide of information age that the key problem of digital divide is not the fact that using the internet , but is under what condition can we translate using internet into a better development opportunity without bringing greater inequality [5].
     
    3 Reasons of The Digital Divide
     
    Although there are many factors contributing to the generation of digital divide, they can be roughly concluded into the following four points : firstly, the level of economic development and personal income. One of the most fundamental reason leading to digital divide is the imbalance between economic development and personal income. Informationization level has intrinsic positive correlation relation with the level of economic development. The application and popularization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) should be based on certain hardware infrastructure, especially in the early stages of ICT application as the hardware cost is high .Therefore, the regions and countries with underdeveloped economy are unable to afford the high cost of information and communication due to low level of economic development. Secondly, the difference between educational level and level of knowledge.The ICT are all based on high technology. The differences of the educational level and knowledge reserve among residents in different regions and countries directly lead to the considerable difference in cognitive level ,acceptance level and self-renewal ability towards the new technology which is also one of the important reasons for the widening digital divide .Thirdly, the guiding of national policies and regulations. The positive public policies and regulations launched by the government can promote the further development of informatization. The differences in the development level of political system, economy and stage of social development will lead to the differences in the cognitive level and emphasis level towards communication technologies among different governments. Finally, personal reasons. Duet to different interests, hobbies, professional knowledge and the differences in the cognitive level ,acceptance level towards new technologies, different people may spent different ratio of spare time on information communication or digital technology which may leads to corresponding digital divide in different groups and classes [6].
                   

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